Hepatitis E (HE) is an acute, self-limiting viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), and its clinical symptoms are similar to those of hepatitis A, but HEV has recently been reported to cause chronic hepatitis in immunodeficient or immunosuppressive states. The transmission route of HEV is mainly fecal-oral transmission, commonly through contaminated water sources and food. China is an endemic area of HEV, HE accounts for about 10% of acute viral hepatitis in China, with a mortalitty rate of 1.4%-5.3%, and a mortality rate of up to 20% in pregnant women.
Current studies on structural proteins (ORF2, ORF3 protein) suggest that ORF2 protein is capsid protein, wrapping and protecting HEV RNA to form viral particles; ORF3 protein function is mainly to mediate viral exocytosis. ORF2 binds to RNA to form nucleoprotein, ORF3 protein is located on the nucleoprotein surface to mediate exocytosis, and the lipid membrane of the virus stolen cells covers the surface when exiting the cell.